During last years, the climate has changed on Earth. Some countries experience abnormal heat, other too cold and snowy winters that are unusual for these areas.
The ecologists call this phenomenon as the global climate change. It includes the increase of the annual average temperature that provokes melting of the glaciers and increasing the level of World’s Ocean. Except the warming, the misalignment of all the natural systems takes place. It leads to the change of the precipitation’s regime, thermal anomalies and increasing of the natural disasters like hurricanes, floods and droughts.
The reasons for the climate change are dynamic processes on Earth, outside effects like the intensity of the solar radiation and human activity.
Natural factors and its influence on climate change
- Greenhouse gases
Greenhouse gases are the main reason for the global warming. According to the research, the greenhouse effect is a key-process that controls the temperature of Earth.
- Solar radiation
The sun is the major source of the warmth in the climate system. Solar energy is an integral part of the climate’s forming.
- Orbit change
The small changes in Earth’s orbit lead to the redistribution of the solar energy. Such changes are called Milankovitch cycles. Because of these cycles, the area of Sahara increases or decreases from time to time.
A strong volcanic eruption can influence the climate causing the cooling for several years. The eruptions also cause the extinction of species.
Anthropogenic effect on climate change
Anthropogenic factors include human’s activity that changes the environment and influences the climate.
- Fuel combustion and aerosols
Because of the active industrial progress, people burn more fuel and it causes the greenhouse effect. Using aerosols also leads to the increase of the amount of СО2 in the atmosphere. As we know, the greenhouse effect causes global warming and temperature change at all.
The greenhouse gas emissions are also caused by the cement manufactories and cattle breeding.
- Land use
The irrigation, forest exploitation and agriculture extremely strongly influence the environment. Such activities can change water balance or the amount of the absorbed solar radiation.
Consequences of climate change
The phenomenon of the climate change has several serious consequences. So if the countries do not do anything to protect the environment, these consequences will be irreversible.
- Natural disasters
The climate zones can move and weather changes will be sharper. The amount of the natural disasters will increase.
- Uninhabitable territories
Some countries can become uninhabitable until 2100 because of increase in humidity. According to the research of American scientists, to the risk group belong Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, UAE and other countries of Near East.
- Extinction of species
The experts believe that we are in the middle of the sixth extinction event on Earth. Now, this process is caused by human’s activity.
- Famine, epidemics and lack of fresh water
The experts of UN warn that warming will negatively influence the harvest in underdeveloped countries of Africa, Asia and Latin America. According to the scientific data, the number of people suffering from famine will increase to 600 million until 2080.
- Increase of the level of World’s Ocean
It is one of the most important consequences of the climate change. Because of the melting glaciers, the level of World’s Ocean will increase and millions of people will die on the coast from floods. Netherlands, Bangladesh, Bahamas and Maldives belong to the high-risk group. Large territories of Russia, the USA, Great Britain, Italy, Germany, Denmark, Belgium, Iraq, Thailand and Vietnam can be also flooded.
To draw a conclusion, people must already now do something to protect the environment and improve the ecology of our planet.
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